Ambartsumian’ s view on astronomy of XX century


Life Dates

The main dates of scientific and social activity of Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian.

1924 Graduation from secondary school in Tbilisi.

1925-1928 Student of Physico- Mathematical Department of the Pedagogical Institute of A.I. Gertzen. Leningrad.

Student of Physico — Mathematical Department of Leningrad University.

1926 First scientific articles onto the physics of the sun (NA Kozyrev co-author) in “Astronomische Nachrichten”.

1928 Graduation from Leningrad University, specialty “Astronomy”

1928-1931 Postgraduate study in Main Observatory of the Academy of Science of the USSR (Pulkovo).

1926 The article on the theory of differential equations in “Zeitschrift fűr Physik”. The first formulation of the reverse Sturm- Liuville’s problem.

1930 An article in the “Reports of the Academy of Science of the USSR” suggesting that the atom’s nucleus along with protons should possess neutral particles.

1931-1932 Scientific Secretary of the Pulkovo Observatory.

1931-1934 Docent of Astrophysics at the Leningrad University.

1934 Professor’s title awarded.

1934-1946 Founded the Department of Astrophysics in Leningrad University.

1935 Awarded a Doctors degree in Physics and Mathematics.

Deduction of the distribution of space speeds of the stars based on the distribution of their radial speeds, “Monthly Notices”, British Royal Society.

1936 The article on white dwarfs in the Galaxy (co-author G A Shayn) “Astronomical Magazine”.

1937 Ambartsumian’s short time scale against James Jeans long scale, polemics in “Nature”.

1937-1944 Scientific Director of Yerevan astronomical observatory.

1938 Foundations of statstical mechanics of the star systems, “The Scientific Notes”.

1938 Problem of diffuse nebulae and cosmic absorbtion , (co-author Gordeladse) .

1939-1941 Director of the Astronomical Observatory of the Leningrad University.

1940 Member of the Communist party of the USSR.

1941-1943 Scientific Pro-rector of the of the Leningrad University, Director of the Scientific Research Department of the LU evacuated to Yelabuga (Tatarskaya SSR).

1942 The new theory of light diffusion “Dokladi Academii Nauk SSSR”.

1943 Founding member of the newly established Academy of Science of the Armenian SSR.

1943-1947 Vice psident of the Academy of Science of the Armenian SSR.

1944 Foundations of the fluctuation theory ““Dokladi Academii Nauk SSSR”. The Labor Red Banner Order on the occasion of the 125-th anniversary of Leningrad University, for the outstanding contribution in education of young astronomers.

1944 Head of the Department of Astrophysics in Yerevan State University .

1944-1979 Editor of “The Astronomical Journal” of Armenian Academy of Science

1945 Lenin’s order for outstanding contribution in the development of science and technology on the occasion of the 220th anniversary of the Academy of Science of the USSR.

1946 Stalin’s award (later called the State award) of the USSR for the new theory of light diffusion in the turbid medium.

Participation in the celebration of the 300th anniversary of Isaac Newton in England.

1946 Director of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Science of Armenian SSR. Editor of the “Messages of the Byurakan Observatory”

1947 “Evolution of stars and the astrophysics” — report on stellar associations on the Moscow Academy jubilee session dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. Honorary Member of the American Astronomical Society.

1947-1951 Delegate member of the Supme Soviet of the Armenian SSR.

1947-1972 Chairman of the publishing council of the Academy of Science of the Armenian SSR. Member of the Lenin’s and State Awards committee in the field of science and technology.

1947 President of the Armenian Academy of Science Society “Znaniye”.

1948 Report “On the patchy structure of the interstellar absorbing layer” on the International Astronomical Union’s VII Congress, Zurich, Switzerland.

1948–1955 Vice psident of the International Astronomical Union.

1948 Head of the Armenian Delegation on the USSR conference for Peace in Moscow.

1949-1953 Chairman of the Armenian Republican Committee for Peace.

1949 Prediction of the extension of the stellar associations in the article “The Stellar Associations” in the “Astronomical Journal”.

1950 Stalin award for discovery and study of the stellar associations. Head of the Soviet Delegation at the International Conference on Astronomical Constants, Paris, France. Participated in the 250th Celebration of the German Academy of Science at Berlin (DRG). Participation in the session of the Executive Committee of the International Astronomical Union, Stockholm, Sweden. Delegate of the Supme Soviet of the USSR. Participation in the session of Executive Committee of the International Astronomical Union in Paris, France. Delegate to the Peoples Congress for Peace, Vienna, Austria. Delegate to the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. Head of the Soviet Delegation to the VIII Congress of the InternationalAstronomical Union in Rome, Italy. Opening lecture at the Symposium on the evolution of the stars.

1952-1964 Chairman of Cosmogony Commission of Academy of Science of the USSR.

1953 Head of the Soviet Delegation at conferences on research coordination on the structure of the Galaxy and the fundamental problems of star classification Holland (Groningen) and France (Paris) Order of Labor Red Banner for the years of impeccable service. Full member of Academy of Science of the USSR. Honorary Member of the British Royal Astronomical Society. Correspondent Member of the Royal Society of the Academy of Science of Belgium. Report “About the Origin of Stars” on the International Symposium “The Dust in the Astronomical Objects” Liege, Belgium.

1954 Report “About Comet Nebulae“ at the International Symposium “Hard Particles in the Cosmic Objects”. Invitation by the Council of the London University. Lectures on stellar dynamics. Visits to the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh, and St Andrews. Article “The Continuous emission and the sources of stellar energy” in the “Messages of the Byurakan Observatory”- A conjecture about possible source of stars radiation. New interptation of Radio Galaxies at the V Cosmogony Conference, Moscow. Head of Soviet Delegation of the Supme Soviet to Berlin, Dresden and Yenne GDR. Delegate to Worlds Assembly for Peace, Finland. Member of Presidium of Academy of Science of the USSR. Report “Stars of T Taurus and UV Wail types and the phenomena of the Continuous emission” at the International Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Dublin, Ireland. Correspondent member of the Austrian Academy of Science. Jansen’s Medal of the Astronomical Society of France. Delegate of the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. Reports on the symposium “Non- stationary stars” at official opening of Byurakan Observatory. Reverse Compton-effect as a possible mechanism of the non- stationary stellar radiation.

1957 Lectures at Annual Meeting of Austrian Academy of Science, at the Universities of Vienna, Innsbruck, Gratz and Observatory of Vienna. Head of Soviet Delegation on the International Symposium on cosmic gaseous dynamics, Cambridge, USA — report on birth of stars in the stellar associations. Several lectures at the Observatories of Mount Paulo Mar, Mount Wilson and Lic. Correspondent Member of German Academy of Science in Berlin. Honorary Member of American Art Academy of Boston.

1958 Lenin’s award for the outstanding contribution in the development of astronomy on the occasion of his 50th anniversary.

1959 Member of National Academy of Science of the USA. Full Member of German Academy of the Natural Scientists (Leopoldina) at Halle. Full Member of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Participation in the work of the National Scientific Congress of India, Delhi. Golden Medal of Catharine Bruce of the Pacific Ocean Astronomical Society (USA) for the outstanding merit in the field of Astronomy.

1960 Golden Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Britain for the accomplishments in the field of the Theoretical Astrophysics and Stellar Astronomy. George Darwin report “The Evolution of the Stellar Systems”. at the session of the Royal Astronomical Society. Medal for Labor Valour. Fundaments of the theory on the super-solid stars in the article “About the Degenerate super-dense Gas of Elementary Particles” “Astronomical Journal” (co-author G.S. Sahakian.

1961 Head of the Soviet Delegation on the XI Congress of the International Astronomical Union in Berkley, USA. Presented “The problems of the Extra- galactic research”. Report “The non-stationary phenomena in galactical systems” at the International Conference on the Non-stationary Phenomena in the Galactical Systems, Santa- Barbara (USA). Delegate of the XXI Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR.

1961-1964 President of the International Astronomical Union.

1963 Doctor of Science Honoris Causa awarded by the National University of Australia Canberra. Head of the Soviet Delegation at the Symposium “Galaxies and the Magellan clouds”, Canberra, Australia, report “Super-associations in the remote galaxies”. Participation at the Symposium “Stars with the Emission Lines”, in Indonesia, Bandung. Participation in the 100 Years Celebrations of the National Academy of Science of the USA.

1964 Head of the Soviet Delegation at the XII Congress of the International Astronomical Union, Hamburg, Germany. Report “Several Remarks on the Nature of the Galactical Nuclei”. Report “About Galactical Nuclei and their Activity” at the XIII Solvey Conference, Brussels, Belgium. Chief Editor of the journal“Astrophysica”.

1965 Doctor of Science Honoris Causa of Paris University. Lectures in the Observatory of Budapest by invitation of the Hungarian Academy of Science.

1966 Delegate of the XXII Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. Delegate of the XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. Organizer of the International Astronomical Union Symposium “Non-stationary Phenomena in Galaxies” held in Byurakan, report “About the Activity of the Galactic Nuclei”. Participation in the International Council of the Scientific Unions Session in Bombay, India. Member of the ICSU Council.

1967 Doctor of Science Honoris Causa of the Karlova University, Prague, Czechoslovakia. Report “The Development Perspectives of the Astronomy”. Full member of the Italian Academy of Science, De Linchey. Head of the Soviet Delegation at the XIII Congress of International Astronomical Union. Chairman of the Editorial Board and the Scientific Editorial council of the Armenian language “Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia”. Title of a Hero of the Socialist Labor with the Lenin order and the Sickle and Hammer Golden Medal awarded for the merits in the development of the Astronomy on the occasion of his 60th anniversary. Cooperation Agreement between Armenian and Hungarian Academies of Science. Report “ The Contemporary Natural Science and the Philosophy” at the XIV International Philosophy Congress, Vienna, Austria.

1968-1972 President of the International Council of the Scientific Unions. Elected at the General Assembly of the ICSU, Paris, France. Symposium “Stars, Nebulae and Galaxies” in Byurakan dedicated to Ambartsumian’s 60th anniversary, report “On the Statistis of the flare objects”.

1969 Order of Cyril and Mephodiy of the First Degree from Bulgaria. Honorary Member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Head of Armenian Delegation at Berlin German Academy of Science, report “About the Development of Science in the Soviet Armenia”.

1970 Vavilov Medal from USSR Society “Znanie” for the merits in the propagation of political and scientific knowledge. Lecture at the Symposium “The nuclei of galaxies” in Rhome, Italy. Head of the Soviet Delegation at the XIV Congress of the International Astronomical Union in England. Full Member of the Academy of Netherlands. Report on the activities of the International Council of the Scientific Unions at the General Assembly of the ICSU. Reelected as the ICSU President. Golden Medal of the Slovakian Academy of Science for the outstanding scientific and social merits and his service to humanity. Chairman of the State Awards Committee of the Armenian SSR in the field of science and culture.

1971 Delegate of the XXIV Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR. Invited by the Congress of the USA to Washington, participated in the discussions on the perspectives of the development of science at US Congress Committee of Science and Cosmonautics session. Report “New Mechanisms of co-operation of the future”. Visit to the National Radio-astronomical Observatory in Green-Banck. Full Member of the Royal Academy of Science in Denmark. Helmholz Medal by the German Academy of Science for Achievements in the Natural Science. Lomonosov Medal, the highest award of the Academy of Science of the USSR for the extraordinary achievements in the Astronomy and the Astrophysics. Report “The Non-stationary phenomena in the world of stars and galaxies” at the Award Ceremony. Organizer of Soviet-American Meeting in Byurakan on Extra-terrestrial Civilizations (CETI). Report “The flare stars” (with L.V. Mirzoian) at the Colloquium of the IAU “The new directions and the new perspectives in the studies of the variable stars” in Bamberg FRG. Head of the Armenian Academy’s Delegation Visited the FRG (Köln, Bonn, Munchen, Heidelberg). Reports on the activity of the Byurakan Observatory. ICSU report at the ICSU General Assembly in Helsinki, Finland. Member of the Academy of Science of the Azerbaijani SSR. Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Science of Sweden. Head of the Soviet Delegation at the Extraordinary Assembly of the IAU dedicated to the 500th Anniversary of Nicolas Copernicus in Poland (Torun, Warsaw, Krakov). “Slughba” Order of III Degree from Polish Government. Doctor of Science Honoris Causa of Nicolas Copernicus University of Torun. Report “Copernicus and the Modern Astronomy” at the General assembly of the USSR Academy of Science. Honorary Member of the Academy of Science of New York. Foreign Member of the Academy of Science of Bulgaria. Doctor of Science Honoris Causa University of La Plata, Argentina. Report “The flare Stars in the Stellar Accumulations and Stellar Associations” (With L.V.Mirzoian) at the IAU Symposium “The Variable stars and the stellar evolution”, Moscow. Kotenius Golden Medal of the German Academy of Natural Scientists (Leopoldina), Halle. Lenin Order award on the occasion of the 250th Anniversary of the USSR Academy of Science. Lectures and consultations on Astrophysics and Extra-galaxy Astronomy in the Observatories of Buenos Ayres, Cordoba, La Plata, Sent Huan, Rossario (Argentina). Foreign Member of the Academy of Science of Cordoba (Argentina). Sarmiento Golden Medal of the Academy of Science of Cordoba, Argentina. Chairman of the Astronomical United Scientific Council of the USSR Academy of Science.

1975 Banner Order of the Hungarian Peoples Republic. Report “On the Evolution Processes in the Universe” at the celebrations of the 275th Anniversary of German Academy of Science, Berlin. Lectures “The Role of the Nuclear Activity in the Large Scale Evolution processes in the Galaxies” and “The Compact Groups of Compact Galaxies” at the European Astronomical Conference,Tbilisi. Delegate of the XXV Congress of the USSR Communist Party. Foreign Member of the Academy of Science of India. Report “The Summary of the Flare Stars Observations in the Stellar Aggregates” (with L.V.Mirzoian) at the Symposium “The Flare Stars” in Byurakan on the occation of the Official Opening of the 2.6m Telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory.

1977 Report “The Large Scale Structure of the Universe” at the IAU Symposium on the Large Scale Structure of the Universe, Tallinn.

1978 Full Member of the Academy of Science of Czechoslovakia. Correspondent Member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Foreign Associate (Associe etranger) of the Academy of Science of France. Lenin Order and the second Golden Medal of Sickle and Hammer of a Hero of Socialist Labor on the occasion of his 70th Anniversary. Honorary Member of the Academy of Georgian SSR.

1979 Report “Einstein’s coefficients for passage probabilities in astrophysics” at the Session of the Academy of Science GDR (Berlin, Potsdam,Yena) dedicated to Einstein’s 100th Anniversary. Report “the Inverse Problems in Astrophysics” , Symposium on the problems of theoretical and mathematical physics, Doubna. Lecture “On the possible correlation between the luminosity and the flares frequency of stars in stellar aggregates”at the Symposium “The Physics and the Stellar Evolution” in Byurakan.

1980 Report “The Observational Approach to the Early Stages of the Stellar Evolution” ( with L.V.Mirzoian) at the IAU Symposium “The Fundamental Problems in the Theory of the Stellar Evolution”, Kioto, Japan. Report “The Chronology of the Discoveries and Stellar Statistic” at the Symposium dedicated to the 200th Anniversary of Aristarch of Samos, Samos, Greece.

1981 Report “On the Origin of the Diffuse Nebulae” at the Soviet-Finnish Astronomical Meeting in Byurakan. Head of the Soviet Delegation at the XIII Assembly of the IAU in Greece (Patras,Athens). Report on byurakan studies of flare stars in young star systems — at the session of “Variable Stars” Commission of the Working Group “The Flare Stars” of the IAU. Report “ The Origin of Diffusive Systems” at the Annual Meeting of the USSR Academy of Science, Moscow.

1983 Report at the Symposium “ On the objects of Herbing-Haro, T Tauris type stars and related phenomena”. National Observatory of Mexico, Tonantcintla. Foreign Member of the Academy of Sciences of Athens (Greece). Report “The Evolutionary Processes in the Universe”. Academy of Sciences of Austria, Vienna. October Revolution Order for the scientific contributions and on the occasion of his 75th Anniversary. Visit to France, Paris as a member of the USSR Supme Soviet Delegation. Report “Concept of star genesis developed within Byurakan Observatory”, Latino-American Regional Astronomical Conference, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

1984 Golden Medal of the Academy of Science of Czechoslovakia for the scientific merits. Foreign Member of the Scientific Society of Syria (Syrian Academy of Sciences

1989 Member of the USSR Assembly of the People’s Delegates.

1990 National Hero of Armenia.

1995 State Prize of the Russian Federation.